Effective Practice

Distributing Practice Over Time


Michael Griffin, author of ‘Learning Strategies for Musical Success’ on practicing.


“Sir, when should I practice? Practice only on the days that you eat.”

-Shin’ichi Suzuki


“An amateur stops repeating when he gets it right. The professional repeats well after to consolidate the myelin coating of the axon sheath.”  -Michael Griffin


“An amateur practices until he gets it right. The professional practices until he cannot get it wrong.” -Stephen Hillier


Memory is more effective when learning is distributed over a period of time rather than in one hit. This process of memory consolidation is known as the spacing effect and was first recognized more than a century ago. The benefits of the spacing effect apply to so-called ‘muscle memory’ as well as cognitive memory. Hence, musicians should practice regularly for shorter periods (distributed practice) rather than less regularly for longer periods (massed practice). For example, one hour per day for six days a week is more effective than six hours one day per week, and two forty-five-minute sessions per day is more effective than one ninety- minute session.

Massed practice, like cramming, might be effective for tomorrow’s examination or performance, but a considerable memory loss occurs over the days and weeks that follow. Memory formation takes time to make the transition from short-term recall to long-term memory. Pioneering psychologist, William James considered cramming a poor way to study and incongruent with how the brain functions.

“Cramming seeks to stamp things in by intense application immediately before the ordeal. But a thing thus learned can form but few associations. On the other hand, the same thing recurring on different days, in different contexts, read, recited on, referred to again and again, related to other things and reviewed, gets well-wrought into the mental structure. This is the reason why you should enforce on your pupils habits of continuous application. There is no moral turpitude in cramming. It would be the best and the most economical mode of study if it led to the results desired. But it does not.”

Distributed practice is more successful for the longer term because between each practice session, what has been learned is forgotten at least partially, and must be retrieved. Paradoxically, forgetting is the friend of learning. Forgetting requires relearning, which sets memories more securely. The more times we are required to retrieve or generate answers, the stronger the neural circuitry of the learning becomes. Therefore rest times between practice sessions are not only important for mental regeneration but also to engage us in the ‘forget and retrieve’ process. The efficiency of distributed practice means that students should need less total practice time to achieve the same long- term learning results as those yielded by massive practice. Similarly, within a given practice session, passages can be targeted in a blocked or spaced manner- we’ll get to that shortly.


Repetition for Music Skill Development

The inflexible and automatic knowledge gained through repetition s the foundation of expert performance, but be warned- repeat carefully! The learning brain does not distinguish between good and poor habits, but learns whatever we repeat. Repetition creates permanence and habits are difficult to correct, in particular pay attention to rhythmic accuracy. Rhythmic patterns are robustly set in the memory and difficult to alter once in place.

Inexperienced learners struggle with the discipline required for repetition and get lulled into a false sense of mastery when they judge themselves as having played a passage reasonable well. Without sufficient repetition, however, the learning soon will unravel. Teachers should practice in front of students, modeling the ‘how’ of repetition. It is advisable to give young musicians who have not yet reached the metacognitive stage a quantifiable number of repetitions to aim for in their practice, perhaps a number not less than six. As students become more mature learners they regulate repetitions, depending on the complexity of the passage. Experts repeat short passages of music again and again.

Most musicians stop repeating when they play a passage correctly, but it is crucial that they keep repeating after this point. Brain connections strengthen and consolidate with myelin, a substance that insulates the axon of a neuron; it is known as the white matter of the brain. Myelin development seems to be a key for learning and maintaining skills because it increases the speed and accuracy of data transmission. Myelin formation is more important than the number of neurons in the brain. Albert Einstein’s brain, for example, had no more neurons than the average brain, but it had twice as much myelin. Experts have more myelin build-up on the neural circuits pertinent to their domain than do non-experts. In 2005, a Swedish professor found a positive correlation between myelin development and the number of hours professional pianists practiced. Myelin is a product of activity and is one aspect of brain plasticity, a term that refers to physical changes in the brain. Brain plasticity includes an increase in myelination and an increase in the number of connections between neurons. In musical learning increasing repetition of a phrase after one plays it correctly builds myelin, which supports consistent and accurate performance…

It is common to confuse temporary performance effects with long-term learning. The teacher or parent may mistake the phrase “But I played it better yesterday” as a white lie, and the student might be disillusioned because he or she thinks the blocks of repetition should have been sufficient for more permanent learning.

There are two issues here. First, even with spaced repetition the consolidation process takes as long as it takes, and then some more for good measure. We cannot predict how much repetition it will take to master a skill but human nature almost always underestimates this. If a passage a student thought he or she learned yesterday is a muddle today, the student must repeat the repetition process. Try not to be despondent. This is a natural part of acquiring skill. Memories do not just form at the point of learning so it may take several sittings for neural connections to become strong. Some people seem to learn more quickly than others, but learning is not a race, and we are all capable of complex skill development through repetition. It may take one person six hundred repetitions over two weeks to consolidate a phrase, wile it may take someone else only three hundred repetitions in one week. Students must learn to be patient and trust in the power of repetition.


Repetitio est mater studiorum!



Blocked and Spaced Repetition 

Recently, I was watching television when a commercial break interrupted my program. Commercials are annoying at best, but this set of five commercial spots really got under my skin. This is because one of the commercials played three  times, not in a row, but with a different commercial in between. Just when I had forgotten it, back it came to haunt me. And I thought rondo form was just a musical concept!



The repeated commercial A was deliberately interspersed with other commercials. The arrangement was cleverly designed to make me forget and retrieve, and I found it difficult to dislodge the commercial from my attention for some time afterwards. I had to acknowledge that this marketing technique was really successful. I had ‘learned’ the commercial. Maybe I can turn this irritant to my advantage.

German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus famously revealed the forgetting curve, proposing that students forget 90 percent of what they learn within thirty days. Further to this disheartening finding the most significant memory loss occurs within the first hour. A memory becomes more robust when the information is repeated in timed intervals. The more repetition cycles, the better for learning, and the more spaces between the repetitions, better again.


Imagine you have thirty minutes available for practice and have decided on three passages on which to work. How would you distribute this amount of time? You could practice the target passages in three blocks consecutively:


Passage A – ten minutes

Passage B – ten minutes

Passage C – ten minutes


Or you could practice them in the following manner:


Passage A – four minutes

Passage B – three minutes

Passage A – three minutes

Passage C – four minutes

Passage B – five minutes

Passage A – three minutes

Passage C – six minutes

Passage B – two minutes


The first method is referred to as blocked repetition. The second, like the television commercial example, is known as spaced repetition. Blocked repetition refers to sticking to a single practice task until it is effectively learned then progressing to the next learning task. Spaced repetition switches between different tasks during the course of a single practice session. In both methods one encounters the same material for the same amount of overall time, but as with the distributed practice concept, spacing the repetitions exposes one to learning the task repeatedly over a longer time span.

Blocked repetition is a useful technique for introducing new skills to create a foundation. It is effective for beginners as it allows them to concentrate on a single task. Even for advanced musicians, very difficult passages require a single focus and attention that might be disrupted if one switches frequently between tasks. However, blocked repetition requires the intense engagement of the learner. If concentration wanes during blocked repetition, progress can stagnate and possibly deteriorate. It is essential to remain attentive and fully alert during practice.

Provided that the practice time is not restricted, and that the learner has the metacognitive ability to determine practice goals, spaced repetition is more effective than blocked repetition. Varying practice tasks frequently creates interference, which leads to a degree of forgetting. As with distributed practice, the benefits of spaced repetition relate to stronger memory formation due to the principle of forgetting and retrieving. When one revisits learning material a neural reconstruction takes place leaving a deeper impression on the brain.


Spaced repetition can be frustrating because it involves more frequent failure and more mental effort, but the rewards are worth this extra effort. Marketing teams and musical learners use spaced repetition, as do professional athletes. For example, golfers are required to play shots of varying distances. Whereas blocked repetition drills require a golfer to hit many consecutive balls to one distance marker before practicing another distance, spaced repetition alternates distance, replicating the real demands on the golf course. On one occasion at the British Open Championship I witnessed Tiger Woods practice in this manner. In skill-based endeavors, drills can provide an illusion of competence. Most teachers have heard their students say, “But I could play it yesterday!”


Spaced repetition can work in concert with blocked repetition, so music teachers should model how a practice session might alternate between the two. Practice technique also should be modeled to students in ensemble rehearsals. In any given rehearsal, I aim to revisit the passages that require the most attention at least three times throughout the rehearsal. I answer initial squawks from students (“But we’ve already practiced that piece!”) by explaining the rationale behind spaced repetition. Teachers cannot expect students to integrate these learning concepts if they do not exhibit them in their own methodology. I have known some music students to successfully apply the principles of spaced repetition to other school tasks. Students love to learn how to learn better.


An excerpt from ‘Learning Strategies for Musical Success’ by Michael Griffin


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